SAAB 9000. Instruction - page 56

Advanced driving


Many people see the words 'advanced
driving' and believe that it won't interest them

or that it is a style of driving beyond their own
abilities. Nothing could be further from the
truth. Advanced driving is straightforward
safe, sensible driving - the sort of driving we
should all do every time we get behind the

An average of 10 people are killed every day
on UK roads and 870 more are injured, some
seriously. Lives are ruined daily, usually

because somebody did something stupid.
Something like 95% of all accidents are due

to human error, mostly driver failure.

Sometimes we make genuine mistakes -
everyone does. Sometimes we have lapses of
concentration. Sometimes we deliberately
take risks.

For many people, the process of 'learning to
drive' doesn't go much further than learning
how to pass the driving test because of a

common belief that good drivers are made by


Learning to drive by 'experience' teaches

three driving skills:

• Quick reactions. (Whoops, that was


• Good handling skills. (Horn, swerve,

brake, horn).

• Reliance on vehicle technology. (Great

stuff this ABS, stop in no distance even in
the wet...)

Drivers whose skills are 'experience based'
generally have a lot of near misses and the
odd accident. The results can be seen every
day in our courts and our hospital casualty

Advanced drivers have learnt to control the
risks by controlling the position and speed of
their vehicle. They avoid accidents and near
misses, even if the drivers around them make

The key skills of advanced driving are

concentration, effective all-round
observation, anticipation and planning.
When good vehicle handling is added to

these skills, all driving situations can be
approached and negotiated in a safe,
methodical way, leaving nothing to chance.

Concentration means applying your mind to
safe driving, completely excluding anything
that's not relevant. Driving is usually the most
dangerous activity that most of us undertake
in our daily routines. It deserves our full

Observation means not just looking, but
seeing and seeking out the information found
in the driving environment.

Anticipation means asking yourself what is
happening, what you can reasonably expect
to happen and what could happen
unexpectedly. (One of the commonest words
used in compiling accident reports is

Planning is the link between seeing
something and taking the appropriate
action. For many drivers, planning is the
missing link.

If you want to become a safer and more skilful

driver and you want to enjoy your driving
more, contact the Institute of Advanced

Motorists on 0208 994 4403 or write to IAM
House, Chiswick High Road, London W4 4HS

for an information pack.


Tools and Working Facilities


A selection of good tools is a fundamental

requirement for anyone contemplating the
maintenance and repair of a motor vehicle.
For the owner who does not possess any,

their purchase will prove a considerable
expense, offsetting some of the savings made

by doing-it-yourself. However, provided that

the tools purchased meet the relevant national
safety standards and are of good quality, they
will last for many years and prove an
extremely worthwhile investment.

To help the average owner to decide which

tools are needed to carry out the various tasks
detailed in this manual, we have compiled
three lists of tools under the following

headings: Maintenance and minor repair,

Repair and overhaul, and Special. Newcomers
to practical mechanics should start off with
the Maintenance and minor repair tool kit, and
confine themselves to the simpler jobs around
the vehicle. Then, as confidence and
experience grow, more difficult tasks can be
undertaken, with extra tools being purchased
as, and when, they are needed. In this way, a
Maintenance and minor repair tool kit can be
built up into a Repair and overhaul tool kit over
a considerable period of time, without any
major cash outlays. The experienced do-it-
yourselfer will have a tool kit good enough for
most repair and overhaul procedures, and will
add tools from the Special category when it is
felt that the expense is justified by the amount
of use to which these tools will be put.

Maintenance and

minor repair tool kit

The tools given in this list should be

considered as a minimum requirement if
routine maintenance, servicing and minor
repair operations are to be undertaken. We
recommend the purchase of combination
spanners (ring one end, open-ended the
other); although more expensive than open-
ended ones, they do give the advantages of
both types of spanner.
 Comb/nation spanners:

Metric - 8 to 19 mm inclusive

 Adjustable spanner - 35 mm jaw (approx.)
 Spark plug spanner (with rubber insert) -

petrol models

 Spark plug gap adjustment tool -

petrol models

 Sef of feeler gauges
 Brake bleed nipple spanner
 Screwdrivers:

Flat blade - 100 mm long x 6 mm dia
Cross blade -100 mm long x 6 mm dia

Torx - various sizes (not all vehicles)

 Combination pliers
 Hacksaw (junior)
 Tyre pump
 Tyre pressure gauge
 Oil can
 Oil filter removal tool
 Fine emery cloth
 Wire brush (small)
 Funnel (medium size)
 Sump drain plug key (not all vehicles)

Sockets and reversible ratchet drive

Brake bleeding kit

Repair and overhaul tool kit

These tools are virtually essential for

anyone undertaking any major repairs to a
motor vehicle, and are additional to those
given in the Maintenance and minor repair list.
Included in this list is a comprehensive set of
sockets. Although these are expensive, they
will be found invaluable, as they are so
versatile - particularly if various drives are
included in the set. We recommend the half-
inch square-drive type, as this can be used
with most proprietary torque wrenches.

The tools in this list will sometimes need to

be supplemented by tools from the Special list:
 Sockets (or box spanners) to cover range

in previous list (including Torx sockets)

 Reversible ratchet drive (for use with


 Extension piece, 250 mm (for use with


 Universal joint (for use with sockets)
 Flexible handle or sliding T "breaker bar"

(for use with sockets)

 Torque wrench (for use with sockets)
 Self-locking grips
 Ball pein hammer
 Soft-faced mallet (plastic or rubber)
 Screwdrivers:

Flat blade - long & sturdy, short (chubby),

and narrow (electrician's) types

Cross blade - long & sturdy, and short
(chubby) types

 Pliers:

Side cutters (electrician's)
Circlip (internal and external)

 Cold chisel - 25 mm
 Scriber
 Scraper
 Centre-punch
 Pin punch
 Hacksaw
 Brake hose clamp
 Brake/clutch bleeding kit
 Selection of twist drills
 Steel rule/straight-edge
 Allen keys (inc. splined/Torx type)
 Selection of files
 Wire brush
 Axle stands

 Jack (strong trolley or hydraulic type)
 Light with extension lead
 Universal electrical multi-meter

Torx key, socket and bit

Hose clamp

Angular-tightening gauge

Tools and Working Facilities


Special tools

The tools in this list are those which are not

used regularly, are expensive to buy, or which
need to be used in accordance with their
manufacturers' instructions. Unless relatively
difficult mechanical jobs are undertaken

frequently, it will not be economic to buy

many of these tools. Where this is the case,

you could consider clubbing together with
friends (or joining a motorists' club) to make a
joint purchase, or borrowing the tools against
a deposit from a local garage or tool hire
specialist. It is worth noting that many of the
larger DIY superstores now carry a large
range of special tools for hire at modest

The following list contains only those tools

and instruments freely available to the public,
and not those special tools produced by the
vehicle manufacturer specifically for its dealer
network. You will find occasional references
to these manufacturers' special tools in the
text of this manual. Generally, an alternative
method of doing the job without the vehicle
manufacturers' special tool is given. However,
sometimes there is no alternative to using
them. Where this is the case and the relevant

tool cannot be bought or borrowed, you will

have to entrust the work to a dealer.
 Angular-tightening gauge
 Valve spring compressor
 Valve grinding tool

 Piston ring compressor
 Piston ring removal/installation tool
 Cylinder bore hone
 Balljoint separator
 Coil spring compressors (where applicable)
 Two/three-legged hub and bearing puller
 Impact screwdriver
 Micrometer and/or vernier calipers
 Dial gauge
 Stroboscopic timing light
 Dwell angle meter/tachometer
 Fault code reader
 Cylinder compression gauge
 Hand-operated vacuum pump and gauge
 Clutch plate alignment set
 Brake shoe steady spring cup removal tool
 Bush and bearing removal/installation set
 Stud extractors
 Tap and die set
 Lifting tackle
 Trolley jack

Buying tools

Reputable motor accessory shops and

superstores often offer excellent quality tools
at discount prices, so it pays to shop around.

Remember, you don't have to buy the most

expensive items on the shelf, but it is always
advisable to steer clear of the very cheap
tools. Beware of 'bargains' offered on market
stalls or at car boot sales. There are plenty of
good tools around at reasonable prices, but
always aim to purchase items which meet the
relevant national safety standards. If in doubt,
ask the proprietor or manager of the shop for
advice before making a purchase.

Care and maintenance of tools

Having purchased a reasonable tool kit, it is

necessary to keep the tools in a clean and

serviceable condition. After use, always wipe
off any dirt, grease and metal particles using a
clean, dry cloth, before putting the tools away.

Never leave them lying around after they have
been used. A simple tool rack on the garage

or workshop wall for items such as
screwdrivers and pliers is a good idea. Store
all normal spanners and sockets in a metal
box. Any measuring instruments, gauges,
meters, etc, must be carefully stored where
they cannot be damaged or become rusty.

Take a little care when tools are used.

Hammer heads inevitably become marked,
and screwdrivers lose the keen edge on their
blades from time to time. A little timely

attention with emery cloth or a file will soon
restore items like this to a good finish.


Working facilities

Not to be forgotten when discussing tools

is the workshop itself. If anything more than
routine maintenance is to be carried out, a
suitable working area becomes essential.

It is appreciated that many an owner-

mechanic is forced by circumstances to
remove an engine or similar item without the
benefit of a garage or workshop. Having done
this, any repairs should always be done under
the cover of a roof.

Wherever possible, any dismantling should

be done on a clean, flat workbench or table at
a suitable working height.

Any workbench needs a vice; one with a

jaw opening of 100 mm is suitable for most
jobs. As mentioned previously, some clean

dry storage space is also required for tools, as
well as for any lubricants, cleaning fluids,
touch-up paints etc, which become

Another item which may be required, and

which has a much more general usage, is an
electric drill with a chuck capacity of at least
8 mm. This, together with a good range of
twist drills, is virtually essential for fitting

Last, but not least, always keep a supply of

old newspapers and clean, lint-free rags
available, and try to keep any working area as
clean as possible.

Dial test indicator ("dial gauge")

Strap wrench

Compression tester

Fault code reader


General Repair Procedures

Whenever servicing, repair or overhaul work

is carried out on the car or its components, it is
necessary to observe the following procedures
and instructions. This will assist in carrying out

the operation efficiently and to a professional
standard of workmanship.

Joint mating faces and gaskets

When separating components at their

mating faces, never insert screwdrivers or
similar implements into the joint between the
faces in order to prise them apart. This can
cause severe damage which results in oil
leaks, coolant leaks, etc upon reassembly.
Separation is usually achieved by tapping
along the joint with a soft-faced hammer in
order to break the seal. However, note that this
method may not be suitable where dowels are
used for component location.

Where a gasket is used between the mating

faces of two components, ensure that it is

renewed on reassembly, and fit it dry unless
otherwise stated in the repair procedure. Make
sure that the mating faces are clean and dry,

with all traces of old gasket removed. When
cleaning a joint face, use a tool which is not

likely to score or damage the face, and remove
any burrs or nicks with an oilstone or fine file.

Make sure that tapped holes are cleaned

with a pipe cleaner, and keep them free of

jointing compound, if this is being used, unless
specifically instructed otherwise.

Ensure that all orifices, channels or pipes

are clear, and blow through them, preferably
using compressed air.

Oil seals

Oil seals can be removed by levering them

out with a wide flat-bladed screwdriver or
similar implement. Alternatively, a number of
self-tapping screws may be screwed into the
seal, and these used as a purchase for pliers
or some similar device in order to pull the seal

Whenever an oil seal is removed from its

working location, either individually or as part
of an assembly, it should be renewed.

The very fine sealing lip of the seal is easily

damaged, and will not seal if the surface it
contacts is not completely clean and free from
scratches, nicks or grooves.

Protect the lips of the seal from any surface

which may damage them in the course of
fitting. Use tape or a conical sleeve where

possible. Lubricate the seal lips with oil before

fitting and, on dual-lipped seals, fill the space
between the lips with grease.

Unless otherwise stated, oil seals must be

fitted with their sealing lips toward the
lubricant to be sealed.

Use a tubular drift or block of wood of the

appropriate size to install the seal and, if the
seal housing is shouldered, drive the seal
down to the shoulder. If the seal housing is
unshouldered, the seal should be fitted with its
face flush with the housing top face (unless
otherwise instructed).

Screw threads and fastenings

Seized nuts, bolts and screws are quite a

common occurrence where corrosion has set

in, and the use of penetrating oil or releasing

fluid will often overcome this problem if the
offending item is soaked for a while before
attempting to release it. The use of an impact
driver may also provide a means of releasing
such stubborn fastening devices, when used
in conjunction with the appropriate
screwdriver bit or socket. If none of these
methods works, it may be necessary to resort
to the careful application of heat, or the use of
a hacksaw or nut splitter device.

Studs are usually removed by locking two

nuts together on the threaded part, and then
using a spanner on the lower nut to unscrew
the stud. Studs or bolts which have broken off
below the surface of the component in which

they are mounted can sometimes be removed
using a proprietary stud extractor. Always
ensure that a blind tapped hole is completely
free from oil, grease, water or other fluid
before installing the bolt or stud. Failure to do
this could cause the housing to crack due to
the hydraulic action of the bolt or stud as it is
screwed in.

When tightening a castellated nut to accept

a split pin, tighten the nut to the specified

torque, where applicable, and then tighten
further to the next split pin hole. Never slacken
the nut to align the split pin hole, unless stated

in the repair procedure.

When checking or retightening a nut or bolt

to a specified torque setting, slacken the nut
or bolt by a quarter of a turn, and then

retighten to the specified setting. However,

this should not be attempted where angular
tightening has been used.

For some screw fastenings, notably cylinder

head bolts or nuts, torque wrench settings are
no longer specified for the latter stages of
tightening, "angle-tightening" being called up
instead. Typically, a fairly low torque wrench
setting will be applied to the bolts/nuts in

the correct sequence, followed by one or

more stages of tightening through specified


Locknuts, locktabs and washers

Any fastening which will rotate against a

component or housing in the course of
tightening should always have a washer
between it and the relevant component or

Spring or split washers should always be

renewed when they are used to. lock a critical
component such as a big-end bearing
retaining bolt or nut. Locktabs which are
folded over to retain a nut or bolt should
always be renewed.

Self-locking nuts can be re-used in non-

critical areas, providing resistance can be felt
when the locking portion passes over the bolt
or stud thread. However, it should be noted
that self-locking stiffnuts tend to lose their

effectiveness after long periods of use, and in
such cases should be renewed as a matter of

Split pins must always be replaced with new

ones of the correct size for the hole.

When thread-locking compound is found on

the threads of a fastener which is to be re-

used, it should be cleaned off with a wire
brush and solvent, and fresh compound
applied on reassembly.

Special tools

Some repair procedures in this manual

entail the use of special tools such as a press,
two or three-legged pullers, spring
compressors, etc. Wherever possible, suitable
readily-available alternatives to the
manufacturer's special tools are described,
and are shown in use. Unless you are highly-
skilled and have a thorough understanding of
the procedures described, never attempt to
bypass the use of any special tool when the
procedure described specifies its use. Not

only is there a very great risk of personal injury,

but expensive damage could be caused to the
components involved.

Environmental considerations

When disposing of used engine oil, brake

fluid, antifreeze, etc, give due consideration to
any detrimental environmental effects. Do not,
for instance, pour any of the above liquids
down drains into the general sewage system,
or onto the ground to soak away. Many local
council refuse tips provide a facility for waste
oil disposal, as do some garages. If none of
these facilities are available, consult your local

Environmental Health Department for further

With the universal tightening-up of

legislation regarding the emission of
environmentally-harmful substances from
motor vehicles, most current vehicles have

tamperproof devices fitted to the main

adjustment points of the fuel system. These
devices are primarily designed to prevent
unqualified persons from adjusting the fuel/air
mixture, with the chance of a consequent
increase in toxic emissions. If such devices are
encountered during servicing or overhaul, they
should, wherever possible, be renewed or
refitted in accordance with the vehicle
manufacturer's requirements or current

Note: It is
antisocial and
illegal to dump
oil down the
drain. To find
the location of

your local oil

bank, call this
number free.

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