SAAB 9000. Instruction - page 33

6•6 Clutch

6.8 Clutch pressure bleeding kit in use

A Bleeding kit vessel

B Fluid supply connection at vehicle's fluid reservoir
C Receiving container connection at bleed nipple
D Compressed air supply from spare tyre

necessary until the ejected fluid is bubble-free.
10 On completion, pump the clutch pedal
several times to assess its feel and travel. If firm,
constant pedal resistance is not felt throughout

the pedal stroke, it is probable that air is still

present in the system - repeat the bleeding
procedure until the pedal feel is restored.

11 Depressurise the bleeding kit, and remove
it from the vehicle. At this point, the fluid
reservoir will be "over-full"; the excess should
be removed using a clean pipette to reduce

the level to the "MAX" mark.

12 Tighten the bleed pipe nipple using the
spanner, and remove the receiving container.

Refit the inspection cover at the transmission
13 Finally, road-test the vehicle and check

the operation of the clutch changing up and
down through the gears, pulling away from a
standstill, and from a hill start.


Chapter 7 Part A: Manual transmission


Gearchange linkage - adjustment 3
Gearchange linkage - removal, inspection and refitting 4
General information 1
Manual transmission - draining and refilling 2
Manual transmission - removal and refitting 8

Manual transmission oil level check See Chapter 1
Manual transmission overhaul - general information 9
Oil seals - renewal 5
Reversing light switch - testing, removal and refitting 6
Speedometer drive - removal and refitting 7



Type Transversely-mounted, front-wheel-drive layout, with integral transaxle

differential/final drive. Five forward speeds, one reverse, all with

Oil type/capacity See "Lubricants, fluids and capacities"

Gear ratios (typical)

Pre-1994 models, transmission code GM:
















Reverse 3.21 :1
Final drive 4.45 :1

1994-on models, transmission code FM:







3rd 1.12:1






Reverse 3.17 :1
Final drive 3.61 :1

Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft

Bellhousing-to-engine block bolts 70 52
Gear lever-to-selector rod bolt 20 15
Gear lever housing-to-floorpan bolts 9 7
Left-hand bearing housing-to-differential screws 24 18
Reversing light switch 22 16
Right-hand bearing housing-to-differential screws 24 18
Selector rod pinch-bolt 33 24
Subframe front mounting bolts 50 37
Subframe rear mounting bolts 55 41
Transmission-to-subframe mounting bracket bolt 70 52

Degrees of difficulty

7A•2 Manual transmission

1.2 Plug locations, post-1994 model year


A Filler plug B Level plug C Drain plug

The manual transmission is mounted

transversely in the engine bay, bolted directly
to the engine. This layout has the advantage of
providing the shortest possible drive path to
the front wheels, as well as locating the
transmission in the airflow through the engine
bay, optimising cooling.

The unit is cased in aluminium alloy, and

has oil filler, drain and level plugs (see
Earlier derivatives included a
dipstick integrated into the filler plug to
facilitate level checking; refer to Section 2 for
greater detail on their usage. The case has two
mating faces; one to the bellhousing, which is
sealed with "liquid gasket" compound, and
one to the gearbox end cover, which sealed
with a solid gasket. A "labyrinth" vent at the
top of the gearcase allows for air expansion,
and permits gases produced by the lubricant
to escape. The vent is fitted with a filter plug,
that prevents the ingress of water and dirt.

Drive from the crankshaft is transmitted via

the clutch to the gearbox input shaft, which is
splined to accept the clutch driven plate. All
six driving gears (pinions) are mounted on the
input shaft; reverse, first and second speed
pinions are journalled on sliding contact
bearings, and the third, fourth and fifth speed
pinions are carried on needle bearings.

The driven gears for all five forward speeds

are mounted on the output shaft, again with
third, fourth and fifth speed gears carried on
needle bearings. Reverse gear is integral with
the first/second speed synchromesh sleeve.

The pinions are in constant mesh with their

corresponding driven gears, and are free to
rotate independently of the gearbox shafts
until a speed is selected. The difference in
diameter and number of teeth between the

pinions and gears provides the necessary
shaft speed reduction and torque
multiplication. Drive is then transmitted to the

final drive gears/differential through the output

All gears are fitted with syncromeshes,

including reverse. When a speed is selected,

2.5 Transmission oil drain plug (arrowed)

the movement of the floor-mounted gear lever

is communicated to the gearbox by a selector
rod. This in turn actuates a series of selector

forks inside the gearbox, which are slotted
onto the synchromesh sleeves. The sleeves,
which are locked to the gearbox shafts, but
can slide axially by means of splined hubs,

press baulk rings into contact with the
respective gear/pinion. The coned surfaces
between the baulk rings and the pinion/gear
act as a friction clutch, progressively matching

the speed of the synchromesh sleeve (and

hence the gearbox shaft) with that of the
gear/pinion. The dog teeth on the outside of

the baulk ring prevent the synchromesh sleeve
ring from meshing with the gear/pinion until
their speeds are exactly matched; this allows
gearchanges to be carried out smoothly, and
greatly reduces the noise and mechanical
wear caused by rapid gearchanges.

When reverse gear is engaged, an idler gear

is brought into mesh between the reverse
pinion and the teeth on the outside of the

first/second speed synchromesh sleeve. This
arrangement introduces the necessary speed

reduction, and also causes the output shaft to
rotate in the opposite direction, allowing the
vehicle to be driven in reverse.

General information

1 The gearbox is filled with the correct quantity
and grade of oil at manufacture. The level must
be checked regularly, and if necessary topped-

.up, in accordance with the maintenance

schedule (see Chapter 1). However, there is no
requirement to drain and renew the oil during
the normal lifetime of the gearbox, unless
repair or overhaul is carried out.


2 Take the car on a road test of sufficient

length to warm the engine/transmission up to
normal operating temperature; this will speed
up the draining process, and any sludge and
debris will be more likely to be drained out.

3 Park the car on level ground, switch off the
ignition, and apply the handbrake firmly. For
improved access, jack up the front of the car

and support it securely on axle stands. Note:
The car must be lowered to the ground and

parked on a level surface, to ensure accuracy

when refilling and checking the oil level.
4 Wipe clean the area around the filler plug,
which is situated on the top surface of the
transmission. Unscrew the plug from the
casing, and recover the sealing washer.
5 Position a container, with a capacity of at
least 2 litres (ideally with a large funnel) under
the drain plug (see illustration). The drain
plug is located on the right-hand end of the
transmission, under the driveshaft; use a
wrench to unscrew the plug from the casing.
Note that the drain plug contains an integral
magnet, designed to catch the metal
fragments produced as the transmission
components wear. If the plug is clogged with a
large amount of metal debris, this may be an
early indication of component failure.
6 Allow all the oil to drain completely into the
container. If the oil is still hot, take precautions
against scalding. Clean both the filler and
drain plugs thoroughly, paying particular
attention to the threads. Discard the original
sealing washers; they should be always
renewed whenever they are disturbed.


7 When the oil has drained out completely,
clean the plug hole threads in the transmission
casing. Fit a new sealing washer to the drain
plug. Coat the thread with thread-locking
compound, and tighten it into the transmission
casing. If ttie car was raised for the draining
operation, lower it to the ground.

8 When refilling the transmission, allow plenty
of time for the oil level to settle completely

before attempting to check it. Note that the
car must be parked on a flat, level surface
when checking the oil level. Use a funnel if
necessary to maintain a gradual, constant flow
and avoid spillage.
9 Refill the transmission with the specified
grade and quantity of oil, then check the oil
level as described in Chapter 1. If a large
quantity flows out when the level checking
plug is removed, or if the level is over the
"MAX" graduation on the dipstick (as
applicable) refit both the filler and level plugs,
then drive the car for a short distance so that
the new oil is distributed fully around the
transmission components. Re-check the level
again upon your return.
10 On completion, fit the filer and level plugs
with new sealing washers. Coat their threads
with thread-locking compound and tighten
them securely.

1 If the action of the gearchange linkage is

stiff, slack or vague, the alignment between
the gearchange linkage and the gearbox
selector rod may be incorrect. The operations
in the following paragraphs describe how to

Manual transmission 7A•3

3.4 Transmission alignment hole plug

(arrowed) - post-1994 model year vehicles

check and, if necessary, adjust this alignment.
2 Park the vehicle, apply the handbrake and
switch off the ignition.

Pre-1994 models only

3 Select reverse gear.

Post-1994 models only

4 Locate the alignment hole at the top of the
gearbox casing, adjacent to the part number

plate (see illustration). Prise out the plug to
expose the alignment hole. Select fourth gear,

then take a screwdriver with a shaft diameter
of approximately 4 mm, and insert it into the
alignment hole; this will lock the gearbox in
fourth gear - the screwdriver handle will
prevent the screwdriver from falling into the

All models

5 Inside the car, remove the gear lever gaiter
and mounting frame to expose the
gearchange lever housing. Take a screwdriver
with a shaft diameter of approximately 4 mm,
and insert it into the alignment hole in the side
of the lever housing (see illustration).
If the screwdriver can be inserted without
difficulty, then the gearchange linkage
alignment is correct, and hence cannot be
blamed for the poor gearchange quality; the
best course of action now is to remove the
gearchange linkage and inspect it for wear or
damage - refer to Section 4 for details.
7 If the screwdriver cannot be inserted into
the alignment hole, then the gearchange
linkage is incorrectly adjusted.
8 From the engine bay, at the point where the
selector rod passes through the bulkhead,
slacken the pinch-bolt adjacent to the rubber
coupling, to allow movement between the two
halves of the selector rod (see illustration).
Move the gearchange lever such that the
screwdriver shaft can be inserted into the
alignment hole in the lever housing; ensure
that the lever is still in the 4th gear position.

10 In the engine bay, tighten the pinch-bolt

on the selector rod, observing the correct

11 Remove the screwdriver from the gearbox
alignment hole, and fit the plastic plug.
12 Remove the screwdriver from the gear

3.5 Insert a screwdriver into the alignment

hole in the side of the lever housing

lever housing alignment hole.
13 Refit the gear lever gaiter and mounting


14 Before moving the vehicle, check that the
gear lever can be moved from neutral to all six
gear positions. Finally, road test the vehicle,
and check that all gears can be obtained
smoothly and precisely.

Gear lever and housing


1 Park the vehicle, switch off the ignition, and
apply the handbrake. If the selector rod is to
be removed as well, select reverse gear (pre-
1994 models) or 4th gear (post-1994 model

year vehicles). Otherwise, move the
gearchange lever to the neutral position.
2 Referring to Chapter 11, remove the gear
lever gaiter, centre console and side carpet
trim panels.

4.6 Gear lever and housing

A Selector rod
B Gear lever housing-to-floorpan bolts

C Gear lever-to-selector rod bolt

3.8 At the selector rod, slacken the pinch-

bolt, adjacent to the rubber coupling

A Selector rod pinch-bolt B Rubber coupling

3 On left-hand-drive vehicles fitted with an
airbag, a steering column restraining cable is
anchored to the floorpan in front of, and to the
right of, the gearchange lever. Release the
cable by sliding it out of the anchoring
4 Extract the rear air duct retaining screw, and
push the duct towards the rear of the vehicle.
5 Extract the clip to release the front air duct
from the heater housing, then push the
duct towards the bulkhead.
6 Slacken and remove the four bolts that
secure the gearchange lever housing to the
floorpan. Lift the housing up as far as possible,
without damaging the console trim, and unbolt
the gear lever from the selector shaft (see
Recover all bushes, washers and
spacers, and remove the housing.


7 It is possible to remove the gear lever from
its housing, to allow the bearings to be
inspected and renewed. It is most likely,
however, that any slack found in the
mechanism will be caused by worn bushes
between the gear lever and the selector rod.
Extract the bushes from the gear lever linkage
(see illustration) and inspect them; if they
appear worn or corroded, renew them.

4.7 Gear lever-to-selector rod bushes


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