SAAB 9000. Instruction - page 9

2A•2 Engine in-car repair procedures

Engine codes

The engine code is situated on the left-hand rear of the cylinder block on models manufactured up to 1993, and on the left-hand front of the

cylinder block on models manufactured from 1994. The code is stamped directly on the cylinder block.

B = Petrol engine
L = Turbocharged engine with intercooler, power output 1
R = Turbocharged engine with intercooler, power output 2
S = Turbocharged engine
E = Turbocharged engine with intercooler, light-pressure turbocharger
LM = L specification, Manual transmission model
LA = L specification, Automatic transmission model


Drive Chain from crankshaft
Number of bearings 5 per camshaft
Camshaft bearing journal diameter (outside diameter) 28.922 to 28.935 mm

Up to 1993 0.14 to 0.35 mm

on 0.08 to 0.35 mm

Lubrication system

Oil pump type Bi-rotor type, driven off the crankshaft

Minimum oil pressure at 80°C 2.7 bars at 2000 rpm
Oil pressure warning switch operating pressure 0.3 to 0.5 bars
Clearance between pump outer rotor and timing cover housing 0.03 to 0.08 mm
Oil cooler thermostat opens at:

B202 90 °C

B234 up to 1993 75 °C
B204 and B234 from 1994

107 °C

Torque wrench settings Mm lbf ft

Automatic transmission driveplate:

Models up to 1990 (17 mm head) 60 44
Models from 1991 to 1993 (19 mm head) 85 63
Models from 1994 on 95 70

Balance shaft chain idler sprocket 25 18
Balance shaft sprocket 42 31
Big-end bearing cap nuts:

B202/B204 engines 55 41
B234 engines 48 35

Camshaft bearing cap 15 11
Camshaft sprocket 63 47
Crankshaft pulley bolt:


to 1990 190 140


on 175 129

Cylinder head bolts:

Stage 1 60 44
Stage 2 80 59
Stage 3 Angle-tighten a further 90° Angle-tighten a further 90°

Cylinder head cover 15 11

Engine oil drain plug 25 18
Engine-to-transmission bolts 70 52

Models up to 1993 (17 mm head) 60 44
Models up to 1993 (19 mm head) 85 63
Models from 1994 on - 80 59

Main bearing cap bolts 110 81
Oil cooler hose unions 18 13
Oil pump on B202 engine (except through-bolts) 8 6
Oil pump on B202 engine (though-bolts) Same as timing cover bolts - see below
Piston cooling jet:

Up to 1993 23 17

on 18 13

Plug for camshaft chain tensioner 22 16
Plug for oil cooler thermostat 60 44
Plug for oil pressure reducing valve 30 22
Sump bolts 22 16

Timing chain tensioner body 63 47
Timing chain tensioner spring plug (1989 on) 22 16
Timing cover bolts:

Models up to 1993 20 15
Models from 1994 on 25 18

Engine in-car repair procedures 2A•3

How to use this Chapter

This Part of Chapter 2 describes those

repair procedures that can reasonably be

carried out on the engine while it remains in

the car. If the engine has been removed from
the car, and is being dismantled as described

in Part B , a n y preliminarydismantling

procedures can be ignored.

Note that, while it may be possible

physically to overhaul items such as the
piston/connecting rod assemblies while the
engine is in the car, such tasks are not
normally carried out as separate operations.

usually, several additional procedures (not to

mention the cleaning of components and of

oilways) have to be carried out. For this

reason, all such tasks are classed as major

overhaul procedures, and are described in

part B of this Chapter.

Part B describes the removal of the

engine/transmission from the vehicle, and the
fuII overhaul procedures that can then be

carried out.

Engine description

The engine is of in-line four-cylinder, double-

overhead camshaft (DOHC), 16-valve type,

mounted transversely at the front of the car.
The transmission is attached to its left-
hand end. The Saab 9000 is fitted with
1985 cc or 2290 cc versions of the engine; later

versions of the 1985 cc engine and all 2290 cc

engines are fitted with balance shafts in the

cylinder block, to smooth out vibrations. All

engines are fuel-injected; a Bosch LH-Jetronic
fuel injection system is fitted to early models,
and a Saab-manufactured "Trionic" engine
management system is fitted from 1993

2290 cc engines) or 1994 (1985 cc engines).

The crankshaft runs in five main bearings.

Thrustwashers are fitted to the centre main
bearing (upper half only) to control crankshaft

The connecting rods rotate on horizontally-

split bearing shells at their big-ends. The
pistons are attached to the connecting rods by

fully-floating gudgeon pins, which are retained

in the pistons by circlips. The aluminium-alloy

pistons are fitted with three piston rings - two
compression rings and an oil control ring.

The cylinder block is of cast-iron, and the

cylinder bores are an integral part of the
cylinder block. The inlet and exhaust valves
are closed by coil springs, and operate in
guides pressed into the cylinder head; the

valve seat inserts are also pressed into the

cylinder head, and can be renewed separately

if worn. There are four valves per cylinder.

The camshafts are driven by a single-row

timing chain, and they operate the 16 valves via

hydraulic cam followers. The hydraulic cam

followers maintain a predetermined clearance

between the low point of the cam lobe and the
end of the valve stem, using hydraulic chambers
and a tension spring. The followers are fed with
oil from the main engine lubrication circuit.

The balance shafts (fitted to later engines)

are driven by a small single-row chain from a
sprocket on the front of the crankshaft. The
balance shaft chain is located on the outside
of the main timing chain.

The engine mountings are of hydraulic type,

and provide a progressive damping action.

Lubrication is by means of a bi-rotor oil

pump, driven from the front of the crankshaft
and located in the timing cover. A relief valve in

the timing cover limits the oil pressure at high
engine speeds by returning excess oil to the
sump. Oil is drawn from the sump through a
strainer and, after passing through the oil
pump, is forced through an externally-mounted
full-flow filter and oil cooler into galleries in the
cylinder block/crankcase. From there, the oil is
distributed to the crankshaft (main bearings),
camshaft bearings and hydraulic cam
followers. On Turbo models, it also lubricates
the turbocharger. The big-end bearings are
supplied with oil via internal drillings in the
crankshaft, while the camshaft lobes and
valves are lubricated by splash, as are all other
engine components. On the B202 (non-

balance shaft) engine, the oil filter is located on

the rear of the cylinder block. On B204/B234
(balance shaft) engines, the oil filter is located
on the front of the cylinder block.

Repair operations possible with

the engine in the car

The following work can be carried out with

the engine in the car:
a) Compression pressure - testing.
b) Cylinder head cover - removal and


c) Timing cover - removal and refitting.
d) Timing chain, balance shaft chain (later

models), guides and tensioner - removal
and refitting.

e) Camshaft oil seals - renewal.
f) Camshafts - removal, inspection and


g) Cylinder head - removal and refitting.
h) Cylinder head and pistons - decarbonising

(refer to Part B of this Chapter),

i) Sump - removal and refitting,

j) Oil pump - removal, overhaul and refitting,

k) Crankshaft oil seals - renewal.
I) Flywheel/driveplate - removal, inspection

and refitting,

m) Engine/transmission mountings -

inspection and renewal.

1 When engine performance is down, or if
misfiring occurs which cannot be attributed to

the ignition or fuel systems, a compression
test can provide diagnostic clues as to the
engine's condition. If the test is performed

regularly, it can give warning of trouble before
any other symptoms become apparent.
2 The engine must be fully warmed-up to
normal operating temperature, the battery
must be fully charged, and all the spark plugs
must be removed (Chapter 1). The aid of an
assistant will also be required.

3 On models with an ignition system

incorporating a distributor, disable the ignition
system by disconnecting the ignition HT coil
lead from the distributor cap, and earthing it

on the cylinder block. Use a jumper lead or
similar wire, to make a good connection.
Alternatively, disconnect the low-tension
wiring plug from the distributor.
4 On models with Direct Ignition, disable the
ignition system by disconnecting the wiring
plug from the Dl ignition cartridge, referring to
Chapter 5B for further information. On models
with a catalytic converter, the fuel pump must
also be disabled by removing the relevant fuse.
5 Fit a compression tester to the No 1 cylinder
spark plug hole - the type of tester which
screws into the plug thread is to be preferred.
6 Have the assistant hold the throttle wide
open, and crank the engine on the starter
motor; after one or two revolutions, the
compression pressure should build up to a
maximum figure, and then stabilise. Record
the highest reading obtained.
7 Repeat the test on the remaining cylinders,
recording the pressure in each.
8 All cylinders should produce very similar
pressures; a difference of more than 2 bars
between any two cylinders indicates a fault.
Note that the compression should build up
quickly in a healthy engine; low compression
on the first stroke, followed by gradually-
increasing pressure on successive strokes,
indicates worn piston rings. A low
compression reading on the first stroke, which
does not build up during successive strokes,
indicates leaking valves or a blown head

gasket (a cracked head could also be the
cause). Deposits on the undersides of the
valve heads can also cause low compression.
9 Although Saab do not specify exact
compression pressures, as a guide, any
cylinder pressure of below 10 bars can be
considered as less than healthy. Refer to a
Saab dealer or other specialist if in doubt as to
whether a particular pressure reading is
10 If the pressure in any cylinder is low, carry
out the following test to isolate the cause.
Introduce a teaspoonful of clean oil into that
cylinder through its spark plug hole, and
repeat the test.
11 If the addition of oil temporarily improves

the compression pressure, this indicates that
bore or piston wear is responsible for the
pressure loss. No improvement suggests that
leaking or burnt valves, or a blown head
gasket, may be to blame.
12 A low reading only from two adjacent
cylinders is almost certainly due to the head
gasket having blown between them; the

2A•4 Engine in-car repair procedures

3.1 TDC timing marks (arrowed) on the

flywheel and engine backplate

presence of coolant in the engine oil will
confirm this.
13 If one cylinder is about 20 percent lower

than the others and the engine has a slightly

rough idle, a worn camshaft lobe could be the
14 On completion of the test, refit the spark
plugs and reconnect the ignition system and

fuel pump as necessary.

1 Timing marks are provided on the

flywheel/driveplate perimeter (through the
transmission timing hole) and on the sprocket
ends of the camshafts. On some later models,
the hole in the transmission is blanked off, but
on these models, a TDC slot is provided in the
crankshaft pulley, together with a timing bar
on the timing cover. Also on these later

models, TDC marks are provided on the

flywheel and engine backplate (rear oil seal

housing) - this is helpful if the engine is being
dismantled on the bench (see illustration).
With the timing marks correctly aligned,

No 1 piston (at the timing chain end of the
engine) will be at top dead centre (TDC).
2 For access to the crankshaft pulley bolt,
jack up the front of the car and support on axle
stands (see "Jacking, towing and wheel
Remove the right-hand front
wheel, then remove the front wing moulding,
followed by the front wheelarch liner, from

under the right-hand front wing. On later
models, it will only be necessary to pull out the
rubber insert for access to the crankshaft
3 Using a socket on the crankshaft pulley,
turn the engine until the TDC "0" mark on the
flywheel/driveplate is aligned with the timing
mark on the transmission, or the TDC slot in
the crankshaft pulley is aligned with the bar on
the timing cover. No 1 piston (at the timing
chain end of the engine) will be at the top of its
compression stroke. The compression stroke
can be confirmed by removing the No 1 spark
plug, and checking for compression with a
finger over the plug hole as the piston nears

4.1 Disconnecting the wiring connector

from the Dl ignition cartridge

the top of its stroke. As the spark plugs are
recessed, the handle end of a screwdriver or
suitable tool may be inserted through the plug
hole, and used to check for compression

instead of your finger.

4 Remove the cylinder head cover with
reference to Section 4.
5 Check that the TDC marks on the sprocket
ends of the camshafts are aligned with the
corresponding TDC marks on the camshaft
bearing caps. If necessary, turn the crankshaft
to align the marks.


1 Unscrew the screws and remove the
inspection cover or Dl ignition cartridge from

the centre of the cylinder head cover (refer to
Chapter 5B if necessary) (see illustration).
On models not fitted with Dl ignition,
disconnect the HT leads from the spark plugs.
3 Unbolt and remove the cylinder head cover,
and remove the gaskets and special split
rubber plugs. Note on early models, the split
rubber plugs are separate, whereas on later
models they are incorporated into the outer
gasket (see illustrations). If the cover is stuck,
tap it gently with the palm of your hand to
free it.

4.3a Removing the cylinder head cover

retaining screws


4 Clean the contact surfaces of the cylinder

head cover and cylinder head. On early
models, locate the special split rubber plugs
on the cylinder head, then apply a 4 mm thick
bead of silicone sealant to the corners of the
head and over the rubber plugs as shown (see
illustration 8.31). On later models, locate the
combined rubber ring in the groove in the
cylinder head cover.
5 Refit the cylinder head cover, and insert the
securing bolts. Tighten the bolts progressively

to the specified torque, starting with the bolts
at the distributor end, and the central bolt at
the timing end.
6 Where applicable, reconnect the HT leads
to the spark plugs.
7 Refit the inspection cover or Dl ignition
cartridge to the centre of the cylinder head
cover, and tighten the screws.

Note: This procedure describes removal of the
timing cover, leaving the cylinder head in

position. The alternative method (which is less

likely to damage the cylinder head gasket) is to
remove the cylinder head first.


1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. To
prevent accidental shorting of the battery

4.3b On later models, the split rubber plugs

are incorporated into the outer gasket

4.3c Removing the cylinder head cover

inner gasket

Engine in-car repair procedures 2A•5

5.9a Unscrewing the lower

bracket bolt

terminals with spanners etc, place a piece of

cardboard on top of the battery.

2 On B202 engines, unbolt the bracket for the
engine oil dipstick tube on the rear of the

cylinder block, and bend the tube to one side.

3 Where applicable, unscrew the bolt
securing the coolant pipe above the knock
4 Apply the handbrake, then jack up the front

of the car and support on axle stands (see

"Jacking, towing and wheel changing").

Remove the right-hand front wheel.
5 Drain the engine oil and coolant, with
reference to Chapter 1.

5 Unscrew the retaining screws, and remove
the right-hand front wing moulding and front

wheelarch liner.

7 Where applicable, remove the separate air

5.9b Extract the circlip ...

conditioning compressor drivebelt, wfth
reference to Chapter 1.
8 Remove the auxiliary drivebelt with
reference to Chapter 1.
9 Unbolt and remove the drivebelt tensioner
unit (and where applicable, the mounting
bracket). To do this on B204 and B234
engines, first unscrew the lower bracket and
upper mounting bolts, then extract the circlip,
and slide the assembly from the stub. Unbolt
the mounting bracket for access to one of the
timing cover retaining bolts (see illustrations).
Have an assistant hold the crankshaft
stationary, by inserting a wide-bladed
screwdriver through the timing hole on the top
of the transmission, and jamming the starter
ring gear. On later models where the hole is
blanked off, engage 4th gear and apply the

5.9c ... and slide the assembly from

the stub

handbrake (manual transmission models) or
remove the starter motor with reference to
Chapter 5A and engage the starter ring gear.
11 Loosen the crankshaft pulley bolt using a
long socket bar (see illustration). The bolt is
tightened to a high torque.
12 Fully unscrew the crankshaft pulley bolt,
and slide the pulley off the end of the
crankshaft (see illustrations).
Unscrew the coolant pipe and oil cooler
pipe supports (as applicable) from the timing
cover (see illustration). Withdraw the coolant
pipe from the rear of the water pump, where
14 Unscrew the bolt securing the power
steering pump steady bar to the timing cover.
Recover the nut from the rear of the timing


5.9d Unscrew the bolts/screws


5.9e . . . and remove the mounting


5.11 Loosening the crankshaft

pulley bolt

5.12a Remove the crankshaft

pulley bolt...

5.12b ... and slide the pulley off the


5.13 Pipe support screw (A). Also note two

upper bolts (B) securing the timing cover to

the cylinder head

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